Biography of Imam Reza
(1507 مجموع کلمات موجود در متن)
(43005 بار مطالعه شده است)
Emam Reza (A.S.), the eighth Shi'ite Emam was born
on Thursday 11th Zee al-Qa'adah 148 A.H. /29 December 765 A.D. in Medina. The
new-born child was named Ali by his holy father, Emam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.), the
seventh Shi'ite Emam. He was divinely entitled al-Reza and his nickname was Abul
For many times Emam Musa Al-Kazem (A.S) explicitly introduced his eldest son
"Ali" as his immediate successor to accede to the divine position of Emamat.
Subsequent to the martyrdom of his father in Baghdad, on the 25th of Rajab 183
A.H. / 1 September, 799 A. D. in the prison of Abbasid caliph, Harunal_rashid,
he attained the holy position of Emamat, when he was thirty five years old, and
he held that divine position for twenty years.
Three Abbasid caliphs were his contemporaries: for the first ten years Harun al-
Rashid, for next five years Amin and finally for the last five years Ma'mun.
Why Ma'mun invited Eman Reza (A.S.)
After the death of Harun (b, 766 A.D., r. 786-809 A.D.) in 193 A.H./ 809 A.D.,
Ma'mun fell into conflict with his brother Amin (b 787 A.D., r. 809-813 A.D.),
which led to bloody wars and finally the assassination of Amin in 813 A.D./ 198
A.H., after which Ma'mun became caliph.
The Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphs were afraid of the Holy Emams (A.S.), who
were publicly recognized as the true and worthy successors of the Messenger of
Allah (S.A.W.). The Holy Emams (A.S.), were therefore constantly persecuted and
tortured by the ruling caliphs of the time.
Ma'mun thought ot finding a new solution for these difficulties which his
Abbasid predecessors had not been able to solve. Ma'mun contrived to invite Emam
Reza (A.S.)to Marw, (the city where Ma'mun's seat of caliphate was located) with
the evil intention of making false friendship with His Holiness. Thus the cruel
Caliph intended to have a direct eye on His Holiness.
In order to have this decision put into effect, Ma'mun forcefully exiled Emam
Reza(A.S) from Medina to Marw. On his departure from Medina, Emam Reza (A.S.)
gathered the members of his family and enjoined them to shed tears for his last
jouney with no return. Holy Emam (A.S.) did not take any member of his household
with him to Marw. His Holiness intended to make the people aware of the exile
that Ma'mun had intended for him.
According to Ma'muns' commands the direction of Emam Reza (A.S.) caravan from
Medina to Marw was predetermined. He arrived in Marw on the 10th of Shawwal in
201 A.H. / 1 May 817 A.D., via Basrah, Khorramshahr, Ahwaz, Rey, Neyshabur,
Sanabad and Sarakhs. Throughout his long journey, the Holy Emam (A.S.) was
cordially received by the people living in those cities and villages on the
route. When His Holiness arrived in Neyshabur he narrated a Hadith Qudsi before
an estimated crowd of 120,000 which also included thousands of distinguished
scholars and traditionists. This historical and the most famous Hadith Qudsi in
known as "Silsilat al-Dhahab". Emam Reza (A.S.) confirmed that worshipping God
will be counted as a perfect procedure when it is based on the obedience of the
Immaculate Holy Emams (A.S.). This historical statement of Emam Reza (A.S.)
implied the presentation and assertion of the Emamat (Socio- religious
leadership) of His Holiness.
The 8th Shi'ite Imam, Imam Ali ibne Musa ar-Reza (A.S.) is also called as
Imam-e-Zaamin(A.S.).When Muslims go on journeys they take with them something
called Imam-e-Zaamin (another name for Imam Reza (A.S.)) which is some money
tied in a cloth. This tradition probably came from the time of Imam Reza (A.S.)
when people used to carry money with them especially because it had Holy Imam's
(A.S.) name on it. As Ma'mun,the Abbasid caliph the contemporary of Imam
Reza(A.S.), had coins minted with the name of Imam Reza (A.S.) on them, it was
very easy for the Muslims to carry the name of Holy Imam (A.S.) with them,
especially when they went on journeys.
Imam Reza (A.S.) is also known as Imam-e- Zaamin (A.S.). Zaamin means "The
Guarantor". One day when Imam Reza (A.S.) was on his historical journey from
Madina to Marw(Khurasan),while in a jungle the Holy Imam(A.S.) came across a
hunter who was about to kill a deer. The deer was trying to get away and when
she saw Holy Imam (A.S.), she said something to him.Holy Imam(A.S.) asked the
hunter to free the deer so that she could go and feed her little baby deer who
were very hungry. Imam Reza(A.S.) also told the hunter that once the deer had
fed her babies she would come back. The hunter allowed the deer to go
becauseHoly Imam (A.S.) had told him to, but he did not think the deer will come
back. But Imam Reza (A.S.)) waited with the hunter until the deer returned with
her young ones. The hunter was amazed on witnessing this miraculous event and he
set the deer free as a mark of respect for Imam Reza(A.S.).After this historical
event Imam Reza(A.S.) became famous as Imam Zaamin(A.S.). The most famous artist
of the contemporary world, Ustad Mahmud Farshchiyan has depicted this historical
event in this beautiful masterpiece iconograph entitled "Zaamin-e-Aahu"(The
Guarantor of the Deer).
Successorship to Caliphate
His Holiness was welcomed at Marw by the caliph himself and by Fazl ibn Sahl and
some distinguished Abbasid nobles in a place a few leagues outside the
metropolis. After some days, Ma'mun offered Emam Reza (A.S.), first the
caliphate, His Holiness seriously rejected Ma'mun's proposal. Then Ma'mun
proposed Emam to accept the successorship to caliphate, the Holy Emam (A.S.)
turned down this proposal also but he was finally forced to accept the
successorship to caliphate. The Holy Emam (A.S.) put forward certain conditions
that he would not interfere in
governmental affairs or in the appointment or dismissal of government agents.
Ritual of Fitr Prayer
In the late Ramadan 202 A.H./ March 817 A.D., Ma'mun requested Emam Reza (A.S.)
to conduct the religious service of the celebration of "Fitr Prayers" (Festival
at the end of the month of Ramadan) in Marw.
The Holy Emam (A.S.) accepted only with the condition to perform the related
ritual just on the basis of the method of the Holy Prophet of Islam (S.A.W.).
Early in the morning of the celebration day of "Fitr", Holy Emam (A.S.) appeared
in plain clothing and bare-footed before that congregation and glorified God
loudly; saying "Allah Akbar" (God in the Greatest of all.). From every direction
of the city the call "Allah Akbar" could be heard because the congregation
present there followed His Holiness and shouted "Allah Akbar".
Ma'mun was deeply alarmed by the magnificence and splendour of that
demonstration and requested Holy Emam (A.S.) to cease the continuation of that
The Holy Emam's (A.S.) Scholarly Discourses
Ma'mun often managed sessions of debates to be held in his own royal palace and
celebrated scholars of various religions were invited there to exchange and
discuss their different views on religious issues,Emam Reza (A.S.) was always
victorious in all those debates and soon his opponents recognized the scientific
status of His Holiness. Emam Reza (A.S.) directed Muslims to the right path and
removed deviated views of the antagonists who endeavoured to distort Islam. In
this way the Holy Emam (A.S.) safeguarded and propagated the principles of
The Holy Emam's (A.S.) Martyrdom
The vicious caliph was scared of the ever-increasing Holy Emam's (A.S.)
popularity. Thus he decided to eliminate the Holy Emam (A.S.). In 203 A.H./ 818
A.D., Ma'mun first imprisoned Emam Reza (A.S.) in Sarakhs. Then the Holy Emam
(A.S.) was taken to Sanabad and confined in the palace of Humaid bin Qahtabah.
During the morning of the last day of the month of Safar 203 A.H./ 818 A.D., the
Holy Emam (A.S.) was poisoned by Ma'mun in that palace. The Holy Emam (A.S.) was
seized with intensive pain and languor and in the evening of the same day the
holy soul of the innocent Holy Emam (A.S.) departed to heaven. The Holy Emam
(A.S.) was buried in the solitude of night at the same place of the palace which
His Holiness had prophecied during his first visit to Humaid bin Qahtabah's
palace at Sanabad in 201 A.H. / 817 A.D.
Once a small village called Sanabad soon transformed into a great metropolis by
the presence of the holy shrine of Emam Reza (A.S.) called as Mashhad al-Reza
(tomb sanctuary of Emam Reza (A.S.)., also briefly called Mashhad which is also
one of the most extensively visited pilgrimage centers in the world.
Post By Reza Bagherzadeh 2004/12/29 Tehran - Iran